Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

15. Income Taxes

15. Income Taxes
12 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2019
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  
Income Taxes

NOTE 15 – Income Taxes


The Company has the following net deferred tax assets:


    March 31,  
    2019     2018  
Deferred tax assets:                
Net operating loss carryforwards   $ 28,118,000     $ 25,487,000  
Research and development tax credit carryforwards     1,850,000       1,789,000  
Stock-based compensation     3,795,000       3,697,000  
Allowances and accruals     1,142,000       1,118,000  
Other deferred tax assets     252,000       284,000  
State income taxes     1,000       1,000  
Basis difference in assets     14,000       (3,000 )
Total deferred tax assets   $ 35,172,000     $ 32,373,000  
Deferred tax assets     35,172,000       32,373,000  
Valuation allowance     (35,172,000 )     (32,373,000 )
Deferred tax assets   $     $  


The income tax provision (benefit) is based on the following loss before income taxes, which are from domestic sources and foreign loss before income taxes: 


      Year Ended March 31,  
      2019     2018  
  Domestic     $ 10,088,000     $ 12,607,000  
  Foreign       1,252,000       1,671,000  
        $ 11,340,000     $ 14,278,000  


The Company’s income tax expense/(benefits) consist of the following:


      Year Ended March 31,  
      2019     2018  
State     $ 2,000     $ 37,000  
Foreign       456,000       13,000  
        458,000       50,000  
      $ 458,000     $ 50,000  


A reconciliation of the statutory federal income tax rate to the Company’s effective tax rate for continuing operations is as follows:


    Year Ended March 31,  
    2019     2018  
Expected federal statutory rate     21.0%       30.8%  
State income taxes, net of federal benefit     4.5%       0.5%  
Research and development credit     0.6%       0.3%  
Foreign earnings taxed at different rates     1.3%       (0.3% )
Effect of state net operating loss expiration     (3.0% )     (0.9% )
Effect of permanent differences     (4.3% )     (4.2% )
Effect of other foreign permanent differences     (4.0% )      
True-up of state deferred assets     1.5%       7.7%  
Tax cuts and Jobs Act impact           (103.7% )
      17.6%       (69.8% )
Change in valuation allowance     21.6%       68.5%  
Totals     (4.0% )     (1.3% )


As of March 31, 2019, the Company had net operating loss carryforwards for Federal, California and Foreign income tax purposes of approximately $107,000,000, $40,500,000 and $3,200,000, respectively. Of the Federal net operating loss carryforwards at March 31, 2018, $100,000,000 begin to expire in 2024 and $7,000,000 will carryforward indefinitely, subject to an annual limitation of 80% of taxable income. The California net operating loss carryforwards and foreign net operating loss carryforwards, begin to expire in 2029 and 2028, respectively, As of March 31, 2019, the Company had Federal and California research credit carryforward of approximately $1,000,000 and $790,000, respectively. The Federal research credits will begin to expire in 2024 while the California research credits have no expiration date. In addition, the Company has foreign tax credit of $50,000, which begin to expire in the fiscal year ending March 31, 2023 if not utilized.


The Company has completed a study to assess whether a change in control has occurred or whether there have been multiple changes of control since the Company’s formation through March 31, 2019. The Company determined, based on the results of the study, no change in control occurred for purposes of Internal Revenue Code section 382. The Company, after considering all available evidence, fully reserved for these and its other deferred tax assets since it is more likely than not such benefits will not be realized in future periods. The Company has incurred losses for both financial reporting and income tax purposes for the year ended March 31, 2019. Accordingly, the Company is continuing to fully reserve for its deferred tax assets. The Company will continue to evaluate its deferred tax assets to determine whether any changes in circumstances could affect the realization of their future benefit. If it is determined in future periods that portions of the Company’s deferred income tax assets satisfy the realization standards, the valuation allowance will be reduced accordingly.


On April 1, 2017, the Company adopted ASU No. 2016-09. As a result of adopting ASU No. 2016-09, the Company has made an accounting policy election to account for forfeitures as they occur. This change has been applied on a modified retrospective basis, with no material impacts on the Company’s financial statements. The adoption of ASU No. 2016-09 also requires excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies be recorded in the income statement as opposed to additional paid-in capital when the awards vest or are settled and recognize all previously unrecognized excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies upon adoption as a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings. As of April 1, 2017, the Company recognized excess tax benefit of approximately $533,000 as an increase to deferred tax assets. However, the entire amount was offset by a full valuation allowance.  Accordingly, an $11,000 cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings was recorded as of March 31, 2018. 


The Company only recognizes tax benefits from an uncertain tax position if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate resolution. To date, the Company has not recognized such tax benefits in its consolidated financial statements.


The Company has identified its federal tax return and its state tax return in California as major tax jurisdictions. The Company also filed tax returns in foreign jurisdictions, principally Mexico and the Netherlands. The Company’s evaluation of uncertain tax matters was performed for tax years ended through March 31, 2019. Generally, the Company is subject to audit for the years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 and may be subject to audit for amounts relating to net operating loss carryforwards generated in periods prior to March 31, 2018.The Company has elected to retain its existing accounting policy with respect to the treatment of interest and penalties attributable to income taxes, and continues to reflect interest and penalties attributable to income taxes, to the extent they arise, as a component of its income tax provision or benefit as well as its outstanding income tax assets and liabilities. The Company believes that its income tax positions and deductions would be sustained on audit and does not anticipate any adjustments, other than those identified above that would result in a material change to its financial position.


On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”). The Tax Act reduced the federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21% effective January 1, 2018, which the Company expects will positively impact its future effective tax rate and after-tax earnings in the United States. The Company recognized a one time decrease related to its federal deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities, before the valuation allowance at March 31, 2018. As the change in the valuation allowance completely offset the change in deferred taxes, therefore there was no impact on the consolidated financial statements at March 31, 3018 related to the rate change.


In accordance with SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, Income Tax Accounting Implications of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, the Company made a reasonable estimate of the Tax Act’s impact and provisionally recorded this estimate in our 2017 results. As of March, 31 2019, the Company completed our accounting for the impacts of the Tax Act, resulting in no material changes to previously recorded provisional amounts. 


The Company does not have any tax positions for which it is reasonably possible the total amount of gross unrecognized tax benefits will increase or decrease within 12 months of March 31, 2019. The unrecognized tax benefits may increase or change during the next year for items that arise in the ordinary course of business.