3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2019
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
NOTE 3 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Aquamed Technologies, Inc. (“Aquamed”), Oculus Technologies of Mexico S.A. de C.V. (“OTM”), and Sonoma Pharmaceuticals Netherlands, B.V. (“SP Europe”). Aquamed has no current operations. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent liabilities at the dates of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Significant estimates and assumptions include reserves and write-downs related to receivables and inventories, the recoverability of long-lived assets, the valuation allowance relating to the Company’s deferred tax assets, valuation of equity and derivative instruments, fair value allocation of assets sold to Invekra, and the estimated amortization periods of upfront product licensing fees received from customers. Periodically, the Company evaluates and adjusts estimates accordingly.
On April 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers Topic 606” (“Topic 606”) using the modified retrospective method. There was no impact to the Company upon the adoption of Topic 606. Revenue is recognized when the Company transfers promised goods or services to the customer, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. In determining the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized as the Company fulfills its obligations under the agreement, the Company performs the following steps: (i) identification of the promised goods or services in the contract; (ii) determination of whether the promised goods or services are performance obligations, including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) measurement of the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations; and (v) recognition of revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies each performance obligation. The Company only applies the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that it will collect the consideration it is entitled to in exchange for the goods or services it transfers to the customer.
The Company derives the majority of its revenue through sales of its products to a customer base, including hospitals, medical centers, doctors, pharmacies, distributors and wholesalers. The Company sells products directly to end users and to distributors. The Company also has entered into agreements to license its technology and products. The Company also provides regulatory compliance testing and quality assurance services to medical device and pharmaceutical companies.
The Company considers customer purchase orders, which in some cases are governed by master sales agreements, to be the contracts with a customer. For each contract, the Company considers the promise to transfer products, each of which are distinct, to be the identified performance obligations. In determining the transaction price the Company evaluates whether the price is subject to refund or adjustment to determine the net consideration to which it expects to be entitled.
For all of its sales to non-consignment distribution channels, revenue is recognized when control of the product is transferred to the customer (i.e. when its performance obligation is satisfied), which typically occurs when title passes to the customer upon shipment but could occur when the customer receives the product based on the terms of the agreement with the customer. For product sales to its value-added resellers, non-stocking distributors and end-user customers, the Company grants return privileges to its customers, and because the Company has a long history with its customers, the Company is able to estimate the amount of product that will be returned. Sales incentives and other programs that the Company may make available to these customers are considered to be a form of variable consideration, and the Company maintains estimated accruals and allowances using the expected value method.
The Company has entered into consignment arrangements, in which goods are left in the possession of another party to sell. As products are sold from the customer to third parties, the Company recognizes revenue based on a variable percentage of a fixed price. Revenue recognized varies depending on whether a patient is covered by insurance or is not covered by insurance. In addition, the Company may incur a revenue deduction related to the use of the Company’s rebate program.
Sales to stocking distributors are made under terms with fixed pricing and limited rights of return (known as “stock rotation”) of the Company’s products held in their inventory. Revenue from sales to distributors is recognized upon the transfer of control to the distributor.
The Company assessed the promised goods and services in the technical support to Invekra for a ten-year period as being a distinct service that Invekra can benefit from on its own and is separately identifiable from any other promises within the contract. Given that the distinct service is not substantially the same as other goods and services within the Invekra contract, the Company accounted for the distinct service as a performance obligation.
Revenue from testing contracts is recognized as tests are completed and a final report is sent to the customer.
Disaggregation of Revenue
The following table presents the Company’s disaggregated revenues by revenue source:
Sales Tax and Value Added Taxes
The Company accounts for sales taxes and value added taxes imposed on its goods and services on a net basis.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents may be invested in money market funds, commercial paper, variable rate demand instruments, and certificates of deposits.
Concentration of Credit Risk and Major Customers
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist principally of cash, cash equivalents and accounts receivable. Cash and cash equivalents are maintained in financial institutions in the United States, Mexico and the Netherlands. The Company is exposed to credit risk in the event of default by these financial institutions for amounts in excess of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insured limits. Cash and cash equivalents held in foreign banks are intentionally kept at minimal levels, and therefore have minimal credit risk associated with them.
The Company grants credit to its business customers, which are primarily located in Mexico, Europe and the United States. Collateral is generally not required for trade receivables. The Company maintains allowances for potential credit losses. At March 31, 2019, no customer represented more than 10% of the net accounts receivable balance. For the year ended March 31, 2019, one customer represented 18%, and one customer represented 10% of net revenues. At March 31, 2018, one customer represented 36%, and one customer represented 18% of the net accounts receivable balance. For the year ended March 31, 2018, one customer represented 22%, one customer represented 19%, one customer represented 13%, and one customer represented 12% of net revenues.
Trade accounts receivable are recorded net of allowances for cash discounts for prompt payment, doubtful accounts, and sales returns. Estimates for cash discounts and sales returns are based on analysis of contractual terms and historical trends.
The Company’s policy is to reserve for uncollectible accounts based on its best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses in its existing accounts receivable. The Company periodically reviews its accounts receivable to determine whether an allowance for doubtful accounts is necessary based on an analysis of past due accounts and other factors that may indicate that the realization of an account may be in doubt. Other factors that the Company considers include its existing contractual obligations, historical payment patterns of its customers and individual customer circumstances, an analysis of days sales outstanding by customer and geographic region, and a review of the local economic environment and its potential impact on government funding and reimbursement practices. Account balances deemed to be uncollectible are charged to the allowance after all means of collection have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote. The allowance for doubtful accounts represents probable credit losses at March 31, 2019 and 2018 in the amounts of $24,000 and $17,000, respectively. Additionally, at March 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company has allowances of $443,000 and $1,275,000, respectively, related to potential discounts, returns, distributor fees and rebates. The allowances are included in Accounts Receivable, net in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost, cost being determined on a standard cost basis (which approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis), or net realizable value.
Due to changing market conditions, estimated future requirements, age of the inventories on hand and production of new products, the Company regularly reviews inventory quantities on hand and records a provision to write down excess and obsolete inventory to its estimated net realizable value. The Company recorded a provision to reduce the carrying amounts of inventories to their net realizable value in the amounts of $184,000 and $111,000 at March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, which is included in cost of product revenues on the Company’s accompanying consolidated statements of comprehensive (loss) income.
Financial Assets and Liabilities
Financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses and other liabilities are carried at cost, which management believes approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments. The fair value of capital lease obligations and equipment loans approximates their carrying amounts as a market rate of interest is attached to their repayment. The Company measures the fair value of financial assets and liabilities based on the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The Company maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. The Company uses three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:
Level 1 – quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
Level 2 – quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active; and model-derived valuations in which all significant inputs and significant value drivers are observable in active markets
Level 3 – inputs that are unobservable (for example cash flow modeling inputs based on assumptions)
Level 3 liabilities are valued using unobservable inputs to the valuation methodology that are significant to the measurement of the fair value of the liabilities. For fair value measurements categorized within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy, the Company’s accounting and finance department, who report to the Chief Financial Officer, determine its valuation policies and procedures. The development and determination of the unobservable inputs for Level 3 fair value measurements and fair value calculations are the responsibility of the Company’s accounting and finance department and are approved by the Chief Financial Officer.
As of March 31, 2019 and 2018, there were no transfers in or out of Level 3 from other levels in the fair value hierarchy.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation of property and equipment is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets. Depreciation of leasehold improvements is computed using the straight-line method over the lesser of the estimated useful life of the improvement or the remaining term of the lease. Estimated useful asset life by classification is as follows:
Upon retirement or sale, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the consolidated balance sheet and the resulting gain or loss is reflected in operations. Maintenance and repairs are charged to operations as incurred.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company periodically reviews the carrying values of its long-lived assets when events or changes in circumstances would indicate that it is more likely than not that their carrying values may exceed their realizable values, and records impairment charges when considered necessary. Specific potential indicators of impairment include, but are not necessarily limited to:
When circumstances indicate that an impairment may have occurred, the Company tests such assets for recoverability by comparing the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of such assets and their eventual disposition to their carrying amounts. In estimating these future cash flows, assets and liabilities are grouped at the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows that are largely independent of the cash flows generated by other such groups. If the undiscounted future cash flows are less than the carrying amount of the asset, an impairment loss, measured as the excess of the carrying value of the asset over its estimated fair value, will be recognized. The cash flow estimates used in such calculations are based on estimates and assumptions, using all available information that management believes is reasonable.
During the years ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company had noted no indicators of impairment.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses are charged to operations as incurred and consists primarily of personnel expenses, clinical and regulatory services and supplies. For the years ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, research and development expense amounted to $1,518,000 and $1,575,000, respectively.
Advertising costs are charged to operations as incurred. Advertising costs amounted to $157,000 and $177,000, for the years ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Advertising costs are included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of comprehensive (loss) income.
Shipping and Handling Costs
The Company classifies amounts billed to customers related to shipping and handling in sale transactions as product revenues. The corresponding shipping and handling costs incurred are recorded in cost of product revenues. For the years ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company recorded revenue related to shipping and handling costs of $55,000 and $46,000, respectively. These amounts are included in product revenues in the accompanying consolidated statements of comprehensive (loss) income.
Foreign Currency Reporting
The Company’s subsidiary, OTM, uses the local currency (Mexican Pesos) as its functional currency and its subsidiary, SP Europe, uses the local currency (Euro) as its functional currency. Assets and liabilities are translated at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, and revenue and expense accounts are translated at average exchange rates during the period. Resulting translation adjustments amounted to $374,000 and $203,000 for the years ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. These amounts were recorded in other comprehensive loss in the accompanying consolidated statements of comprehensive loss for the years ended March 31, 2019 and 2018.
Foreign currency transaction gains (losses) relate primarily to trade payables and receivables and intercompany transactions between subsidiaries OTM and SP Europe. These transactions are expected to be settled in the foreseeable future. The Company recorded foreign currency transaction losses of $162,000, and foreign currency transaction losses of $208,000, for the years ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. The related amounts were recorded in other expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of comprehensive (loss) income.
The Company accounts for share-based awards exchanged for employee services at the estimated grant date fair value of the award. The Company estimates the fair value of employee stock option awards using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Company amortizes the fair value of employee stock options on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the awards. Compensation expense includes the impact of an estimate for forfeitures for all stock options.
The Company accounts for equity instruments issued to non-employees at their fair value on the measurement date. The measurement of stock-based compensation is subject to periodic adjustment as the underlying equity instrument vests or becomes non-forfeitable. Non-employee stock-based compensation charges are amortized over the vesting period or as earned.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and net operating loss and credit carryforwards using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to impact taxable income. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts expected to be realized.
Tax benefits claimed or expected to be claimed on a tax return are recorded in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. A tax benefit from an uncertain tax position is only recognized if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the consolidated financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate resolution. Uncertain tax positions have had no impact on the Company’s consolidated financial condition, results of comprehensive (loss) income or cash flows.
Other comprehensive loss includes all changes in stockholders’ equity during a period from non-owner sources and is reported in the consolidated statement of changes in stockholders’ equity. To date, other comprehensive loss consists of changes in accumulated foreign currency translation adjustments. Accumulated other comprehensive losses at March 31, 2019 and 2018 were $4,349,000 and $3,975,000, respectively.
Net Loss per Share
The Company computes basic net loss per share by dividing net loss per share available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period and excludes the effects of any potentially dilutive securities. Diluted earnings per share, if presented, would include the dilution that would occur upon the exercise or conversion of all potentially dilutive securities into common stock using the “treasury stock” and/or “if converted” methods as applicable. The computation of basic loss per share for the years ended March 31, 2019 and 2018 excludes the potentially dilutive securities summarized in the table below because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.
Common Stock Purchase Warrants and Other Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company classifies common stock purchase warrants and other free standing derivative financial instruments as equity if the contracts (i) require physical settlement or net-share settlement or (ii) give the Company a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in its own shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement). The Company classifies any contracts that (i) require net-cash settlement (including a requirement to net cash settle the contract if an event occurs and if that event is outside the control of the Company), (ii) give the counterparty a choice of net cash settlement or settlement in shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement), or (iii) contain reset provisions as either an asset or a liability. The Company assesses classification of its freestanding derivatives at each reporting date to determine whether a change in classification between assets and liabilities is required. The Company determined that its freestanding derivatives, which principally consist of warrants to purchase common stock, satisfied the criteria for classification as equity instruments, other than certain warrants that contained reset provisions and certain warrants that required net-cash settlement that the Company classified as derivative liabilities.
The Company applies the accounting standards for distinguishing liabilities from equity when determining the classification and measurement of its preferred stock. Shares that are subject to mandatory redemption (if any) are classified as liability instruments and are measured at fair value. The Company classifies conditionally redeemable preferred shares, which includes preferred shares that feature redemption rights that are either within the control of the holder or subject to redemption upon the occurrence of uncertain events not solely within the Company’s control, as temporary equity. At all other times, preferred shares are classified as stockholders' equity.
Management has evaluated subsequent events or transactions occurring through the date these consolidated financial statements were issued.
Adoption of Recent Accounting Standards
On April 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU No. 2016-01, Financial Instruments-Overall, which addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. The Company has determined there was no material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial position and results of operations upon adoption of this topic.
Statement of Cash Flows
On April 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230). This amendment provides guidance on the presentation and classification of specific cash flow items to improve consistency within the statement of cash flows. The Company has determined there was no material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial position and results of operations upon adoption of this topic.
On April 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU No. 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash, which changes the presentation of restricted cash and cash equivalents on the statement of cash flows. Restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents will be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. The Company has determined there was no material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial position and results of operations upon adoption of this topic.
On April 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU No. 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business, which clarifies the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. The definition of a business affects many areas of accounting, including acquisitions, disposals, goodwill, and consolidation. The Company has determined there was no material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial position and results of operations upon adoption of this topic.
On April 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU No. 2017-09, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting, clarifying when a change to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award must be accounted for as a modification. The new guidance requires modification accounting if the fair value, vesting condition or the classification of the award is not the same immediately before and after a change to the terms and conditions of the award. The Company has determined there was no material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial position and results of operations upon adoption of this topic.
Recent Accounting Standards
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which will require lessees to recognize a right of use asset and lease liability on the balance sheet for leases with terms longer than 12 months. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement. The amendment will be effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-10, Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases and ASU No. 2018-11, Leases - Targeted Improvements. ASU No. 2018-10 provides certain amendments that affect narrow aspects of the guidance issued in ASU No. 2016-02. ASU No. 2018-11 allows entities the option to prospectively apply the new lease standard at the adoption date instead of recording the cumulative impact of all comparative reporting periods presented within retained earnings. Upon adoption of Topic 842, the Company expects recognition of additional assets and corresponding liabilities pertaining to its operating leases on tis consolidated balance sheets. The Company does not expect the adoption of the new standard to have a significant impact on its consolidated statements of operations and cash flows.
Reporting Comprehensive Income
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income ("ASU 2018-02"). ASU 2018-02 provides financial statement preparers with an option to reclassify stranded tax effects within accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings in each period in which the effect of the change in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Act”) (or portion thereof) is recorded. ASU 2018-02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted for any interim period for which financial statements have not been issued. The Company does not believe that the adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements due to the presence of a full valuation allowance. However, the Company is in the process of evaluating the impact of this new guidance on the Company's consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which expands the scope of ASC Topic 718 to include all share-based payment arrangements related to the acquisition of goods and services from both nonemployees and employees. This amendment will be effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 31, 2018. The Company is currently evaluating the impact ASU No. 2018-07 will have on its consolidated financial position, results of operations or financial statement disclosure.
Accounting standards that have been issued or proposed by the FASB, the SEC or other standard setting bodies that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements upon adoption.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef