Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
3 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2016
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Use of Estimates


The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent liabilities at the dates of the condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Significant estimates and assumptions include reserves and write-downs related to receivables and inventories, the recoverability of long-lived assets, the valuation allowance relating to the Company’s deferred tax assets, valuation of equity and derivative instruments, debt discounts, valuation of investments, and the estimated amortization periods of upfront product licensing fees received from customers. Periodically, the Company evaluates and adjusts estimates accordingly. The allowance for doubtful accounts represents probable credit losses of $15,000 at June 30, 2016 and March 31, 2016. Additionally at June 30, 2016 and March 31, 2016 the Company has allowances of $715,000 and $653,000, respectively, related to potential discounts, returns, distributor fees and rebates. The allowances are included in Accounts Receivable, net in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets.


Net Loss per Share


The Company computes basic net loss per share by dividing net loss per share available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period and excludes the effects of any potentially dilutive securities. Diluted earnings per share, if presented, would include the dilution that would occur upon the exercise or conversion of all potentially dilutive securities into common stock using the “treasury stock” and/or “if converted” methods as applicable. The following were excluded from the computation of diluted shares outstanding due to the losses for the three months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015, as they would have had an anti-dilutive impact on the Company’s net loss (all amounts are rounded to the nearest thousand).


    June 30,  
    2016     2015  
Options to purchase common stock     754,000       596,000  
Warrants to purchase common stock     1,468,000       1,548,000  
      2,222,000       2,144,000  


Common Stock Purchase Warrants and Other Derivative Financial Instruments


The Company classifies common stock purchase warrants and other free standing derivative financial instruments as equity if the contracts (i) require physical settlement or net-share settlement or (ii) give the Company a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in its own shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement). The Company classifies any contracts that (i) require net-cash settlement (including a requirement to net cash settle the contract if an event occurs and if that event is outside the control of the Company), (ii) give the counterparty a choice of net cash settlement or settlement in shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement), or (iii) contain reset provisions as either an asset or a liability. The Company assesses classification of its freestanding derivatives at each reporting date to determine whether a change in classification between assets and liabilities is required. The Company determined that its freestanding derivatives, which principally consist of warrants to purchase common stock, satisfied the criteria for classification as equity instruments, other than certain warrants that contained reset provisions and certain warrants that required net-cash settlement that the Company classified as derivative liabilities.


Revenue Recognition and Accounts Receivable


The Company generates revenue from sales of its products to a customer base including hospitals, medical centers, doctors, pharmacies, distributors and wholesalers. The Company sells products directly to end users and to distributors. The Company also entered into agreements to license its technology and products.


The Company also provides regulatory compliance testing and quality assurance services to medical device and pharmaceutical companies.


The Company records revenue when (i) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (ii) delivery has occurred, (iii) the fee is fixed or determinable, and (iv) collectability of the sale is reasonably assured.


The Company requires all product sales to be supported by evidence of a sale transaction that clearly indicates the selling price to the customer, shipping terms and payment terms. Evidence of an arrangement generally consists of a contract or purchase order approved by the customer. The Company has ongoing relationships with certain customers from which it customarily accepts orders by telephone in lieu of purchase orders.


The Company recognizes revenue at the time it receives confirmation that the goods were either tendered at their destination, when shipped “FOB destination,” or transferred to a shipping agent, when shipped “FOB shipping point.” Delivery to the customer is deemed to have occurred when the customer takes title to the product. Generally, title passes to the customer upon shipment, but could occur when the customer receives the product based on the terms of the agreement with the customer.


The selling prices of all goods are fixed, and agreed to with the customer, prior to shipment. Selling prices are generally based on established list prices. The right to return product is customarily based on the terms of the agreement with the customer. The Company estimates and accrues for potential returns and records this as a reduction of revenue in the same period the related revenue is recognized. Additionally, distribution fees are paid to certain wholesale distributors based on contractually determined rates. The Company estimates and accrues the fee on shipment to the respective wholesale distributors and recognizes the fee as a reduction of revenue in the same period the related revenue is recognized. The Company also offers cash discounts to certain customers, generally 2% of the sales price, as an incentive for prompt payment. The Company accounts for cash discounts by reducing accounts receivable by the prompt pay discount amount and recognizes the discount as a reduction of revenue in the same period the related revenue is recognized. Additionally, the Company participates in certain rebate programs which provide discounted prescriptions to qualified patients. The Company contracts a third-party to administer the program. The Company estimates and accrues for future rebates based on historical data for rebate redemption rates and the historical value of redemptions. Rebates are recognized as a reduction of revenue in the same period the related revenue is recognized.


The Company evaluates the creditworthiness of new customers and monitors the creditworthiness of its existing customers to determine whether an event or changes in their financial circumstances would raise doubt as to the collectability of a sale at the time in which a sale is made. Payment terms on sales made in the United States are generally 30 days and are extended up to 90 days for initial product launches, payment terms internationally generally range from prepaid prior to shipment to 90 days.


In the event a sale is made to a customer under circumstances in which collectability is not reasonably assured, the Company either requires the customer to remit payment prior to shipment or defers recognition of the revenue until payment is received. The Company maintains a reserve for amounts which may not be collectible due to risk of credit losses.


Product license revenue is generated through agreements with strategic partners for the commercialization of Microcyn® products. The terms of the agreements sometimes include non-refundable upfront fees. The Company analyzes multiple element arrangements to determine whether the elements can be separated. Analysis is performed at the inception of the arrangement and as each product is delivered. If a product or service is not separable, the combined deliverables are accounted for as a single unit of accounting and recognized over the performance obligation period.


When appropriate, the Company defers recognition of non-refundable upfront fees. If the Company has continuing performance obligations then such up-front fees are deferred and recognized over the period of continuing involvement.


The Company recognizes royalty revenues from licensed products upon the sale of the related products.


Revenue from consulting contracts is recognized as services are provided. Revenue from testing contracts is recognized as tests are completed and a final report is sent to the customer.




Inventories are stated at the lower of cost, cost being determined on a standard cost basis (which approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis), or market.


Due to changing market conditions, estimated future requirements, age of the inventories on hand and production of new products, the Company regularly reviews inventory quantities on hand and records a provision to write down excess and obsolete inventory to its estimated net realizable value. The Company recorded reserves to reduce the carrying amounts of inventories to their net realizable value in the amounts of $167,000 and $164,000 at June 30, 2016 and March 31, 2016.


Income Taxes


The Company is required to determine the aggregate amount of income tax expense or loss based upon tax statutes in jurisdictions in which it conducts business. In making these estimates, the Company adjusts its results determined in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles for items that are treated differently by the applicable taxing authorities. Deferred tax assets and liabilities resulting from these differences are reflected on its balance sheet for temporary differences in loss and credit carryforwards that will reverse in subsequent years. The Company also establishes a valuation allowance against deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Valuation allowances are based, in part, on predictions that management must make as to the results in future periods. The outcome of events could differ over time which would require that the Company makes changes in its valuation allowance.


Financial Assets and Liabilities


Financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses and other liabilities are carried at cost, which management believes approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments. The fair value of capital lease obligations and equipment loans approximates their carrying amounts as a market rate of interest is attached to their repayment. The Company measures the fair value of financial assets and liabilities based on the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The Company maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. The Company uses three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:


Level 1 – quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities


Level 2 – quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active; and model-derived valuations in which all significant inputs and significant value drivers are observable in active markets.


Level 3 – inputs that are unobservable (for example cash flow modeling inputs based on assumptions)


Level 3 liabilities are valued using unobservable inputs to the valuation methodology that are significant to the measurement of the fair value of the liabilities. For fair value measurements categorized within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy, the Company’s accounting and finance department, who report to the Chief Financial Officer, determine its valuation policies and procedures. The development and determination of the unobservable inputs for Level 3 fair value measurements and fair value calculations are the responsibility of the Company’s accounting and finance department and are approved by the Chief Financial Officer.


Level 3 Valuation Techniques:


Level 3 financial liabilities consist of the derivative liabilities for which there is no current market for these securities such that the determination of fair value requires significant judgment or estimation. Changes in fair value measurements categorized within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy are analyzed each period based on changes in estimates or assumptions and recorded as appropriate.


As of June 30, 2016 and March 31, 2016, there were no transfers in or out of Level 3 from other levels in the fair value hierarchy.


Subsequent Events


Management has evaluated subsequent events or transactions occurring through the date the condensed consolidated financial statements were issued (Note 11).


Recent Accounting Pronouncements


Accounting standards that have been issued or proposed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”), SEC and/or other standards-setting bodies that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material impact on the condensed consolidated financial statements upon adoption.