Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2021
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

NOTE 3 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies


Principles of Consolidation


The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Aquamed Technologies, Inc. (“Aquamed”), Oculus Technologies of Mexico S.A. de C.V. (“OTM”), and Sonoma Pharmaceuticals Netherlands, B.V. (“SP Europe”). Aquamed has no current operations. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The functional currency for the Company's wholly-owned subsidiaries incorporated outside the United States (“U.S.”) is the U.S. dollar. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.


Basis of presentation


The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared by us pursuant to the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") and are in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"). Our fiscal year end is March 31. Unless otherwise stated, all years and dates refer to our fiscal year.


Correction of an Immaterial Misstatement in a Prior Period Financial Statement


During the year ended March 31, 2021, the Company discovered that it had failed to accrue withholding taxes that would become due to Mexico upon the payment of interest and royalties from the Mexico subsidiary OTM to the United States parent. Due to the large net operating losses in the United States, there would be no benefit available for a subsequent foreign tax credit on the United States tax return, resulting in a net tax expense. The error understated by an immaterial amount the SG&A expenses for each year from the year ended March 31, 2004 to March 31, 2020 as well as understated net loss. The net impact to the opening balance of retained earnings for the year ended March 31, 2020 would be $2,720,000 and the effect to the profit and loss statement would have been $362,000 for the year ended March 31, 2020.


Based on an analysis of Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 250 – “Accounting Changes and Error Corrections” (“ASC 250”), Staff Accounting Bulletin 99 – “Materiality” (“SAB 99”) and Staff Accounting Bulletin 108 – “Considering the Effects of Prior Year Misstatements when Quantifying Misstatements in Current Year Financial Statements” (“SAB 108”), the Company determined that these errors were immaterial to the previously issued financial statements, and as such no restatement was necessary. Correcting prior period financial statements for immaterial errors would not require previously filed reports to be amended. Such correction may be made the next time the registrant files the prior period financial statements. Accordingly, the misstatements were corrected during the period ended March 31, 2021 in the accompanying balance sheet as of March 31, 2020 and statements of operations for the twelve months ended March 31, 2020.


The effects of the revision to the balance sheet as of March 31, 2020 are as follows (in thousands):


    As Previously Reported
March 31, 2020
Debit (Credit)
    As Revised
March 31, 2020
SG&A expense     –        362       362  
Net loss     (2,946 )     362       (3,308 )
Withholding tax payable           (3,082 )     3,082  
Retained earnings     (172,244 )     3,082       (175,326 )


Cash and Cash Equivalents


Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand and all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased. Our cash equivalents are held in prime money market investments with strong sponsor organizations which are monitored on a continuous basis.


Use of Estimates


The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent liabilities at the dates of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Significant estimates and assumptions include reserves and write-downs related to receivables and inventories, the recoverability of long-lived assets, the valuation allowance relating to the Company’s deferred tax assets, valuation of equity and derivative instruments, fair value allocation of assets sold to Invekra, and the estimated amortization periods of upfront product licensing fees received from customers. Periodically, the Company evaluates and adjusts estimates accordingly.


Revenue Recognition


On April 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update ("ASU"), "Revenue from Contracts with Customers Topic 606” (“Topic 606”) using the modified retrospective method. There was no material impact to the Company upon the adoption of Topic 606. Revenue is recognized when the Company transfers promised goods or services to the customer, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. In determining the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized as the Company fulfills its obligations under the agreement, the Company performs the following steps: (i) identification of the promised goods or services in the contract; (ii) determination of whether the promised goods or services are performance obligations, including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) measurement of the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations; and (v) recognition of revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies each performance obligation. The Company only applies the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that it will collect the consideration it is entitled to in exchange for the goods or services it transfers to the customer.


The Company derives the majority of its revenue through sales of its products directly to end users and to distributors. The Company also sells products to a customer base, including hospitals, medical centers, doctors, pharmacies, distributors and wholesalers. The Company also has entered into agreements to license its technology and products. The Company also provides regulatory compliance testing and quality assurance services to medical device and pharmaceutical companies.


The Company considers customer purchase orders, which in some cases are governed by master sales agreements, to be the contracts with a customer. For each contract, the Company considers the promise to transfer products, each of which are distinct, to be the identified performance obligations. In determining the transaction price the Company evaluates whether the price is subject to refund or adjustment to determine the net consideration to which it expects to be entitled.


For all of its sales to non-consignment distribution channels, revenue is recognized when control of the product is transferred to the customer (i.e. when its performance obligation is satisfied), which typically occurs when title passes to the customer upon shipment but could occur when the customer receives the product based on the terms of the agreement with the customer. For product sales to its value-added resellers, non-stocking distributors and end-user customers, the Company grants return privileges to its customers, and because the Company has a long history with its customers, the Company is able to estimate the amount of product that will be returned.  Sales incentives and other programs that the Company may make available to these customers are considered to be a form of variable consideration, and the Company maintains estimated accruals and allowances using the expected value method.


The Company has entered into consignment arrangements, in which goods are left in the possession of another party to sell. As products are sold from the customer to third parties, the Company recognizes revenue based on a variable percentage of a fixed price.  Revenue recognized varies depending on whether a patient is covered by insurance or is not covered by insurance. In addition, the Company may incur a revenue deduction related to the use of the Company’s rebate program.


Sales to stocking distributors are made under terms with fixed pricing and limited rights of return (known as “stock rotation”) of the Company’s products held in their inventory. Revenue from sales to distributors is recognized upon the transfer of control to the distributor.


The Company assessed the promised goods and services in the technical support to Invekra for a ten-year period as being a distinct service that Invekra can benefit from on its own and is separately identifiable from any other promises within the contract. Given that the distinct service is not substantially the same as other goods and services within the Invekra contract, the Company accounted for the distinct service as a performance obligation.


Service revenue from testing contracts is recognized as tests are completed and a final report is sent to the customer.


Disaggregation of Revenue


The following table presents the Company’s disaggregated revenues by revenue source:



Year Ended

March 31,

    2021     2020  
Human Care   $ 15,317,000     $ 15,686,000  
Animal Care     3,200,000       2,091,000  
      18,517,000       17,777,000  
Service     112,000       151,000  
Total   $ 18,629,000     $ 17,928,000  


Concentration of Credit Risk and Major Customers


Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist principally of cash, cash equivalents and accounts receivable. Cash and cash equivalents are maintained in financial institutions in the United States, Mexico and the Netherlands. The Company is exposed to credit risk in the event of default by these financial institutions for amounts in excess of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insured limits. Cash and cash equivalents held in foreign banks are intentionally kept at minimal levels, and therefore have minimal credit risk associated with them.


The Company grants credit to its business customers, which are primarily located in Mexico, Europe and the United States. Collateral is generally not required for trade receivables. The Company maintains allowances for potential credit losses. At March 31, 2021 and 2020, no customers represented more than 10% of net accounts receivable balance, respectively. For the year ended March 31, 2021, one customer represented 32%, and one customer represented 15% of net revenues. For the year ended March 31, 2020, one customer represented 15%, and one customer represented 11% of net revenues.


Accounts Receivable


Trade accounts receivable are recorded net of allowances for cash discounts for prompt payment, doubtful accounts, and sales returns. Estimates for cash discounts and sales returns are based on analysis of contractual terms and historical trends.


The Company’s policy is to reserve for uncollectible accounts based on its best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses in its existing accounts receivable. The Company periodically reviews its accounts receivable to determine whether an allowance for doubtful accounts is necessary based on an analysis of past due accounts and other factors that may indicate that the realization of an account may be in doubt. Other factors that the Company considers include its existing contractual obligations, historical payment patterns of its customers and individual customer circumstances, an analysis of days sales outstanding by customer and geographic region, and a review of the local economic environment and its potential impact on government funding and reimbursement practices. Account balances deemed to be uncollectible are charged to the allowance after all means of collection have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote. The allowance for doubtful accounts represents probable credit losses at March 31, 2021 and 2020 in the amounts of $125,000 and $1,028,000, respectively. Additionally, at March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company has allowances of $1,488,000 and $1,230,000, respectively, related to potential discounts, returns, distributor fees and rebates. The allowances are included in Accounts Receivable, net in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.




Inventories are stated at the lower of cost, cost being determined on a standard cost basis (which approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis), or net realizable value.


Due to changing market conditions, estimated future requirements, age of the inventories on hand and production of new products, the Company regularly reviews inventory quantities on hand and records a provision to write down excess and obsolete inventory to its estimated net realizable value. The Company recorded a provision to reduce the carrying amounts of inventories to their net realizable value in the amounts of $223,000 and $600,000 at March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, which is included in cost of product revenues on the Company’s accompanying consolidated statements of comprehensive (loss) income.


Financial Assets and Liabilities


Financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable are carried at cost, which management believes approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments. The fair value of capital lease obligations and equipment loans approximates their carrying amounts as a market rate of interest is attached to their repayment. The Company measures the fair value of financial assets and liabilities based on the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The Company maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. The Company uses three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:


Level 1 – quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities


Level 2 – quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active; and model-derived valuations in which all significant inputs and significant value drivers are observable in active markets


Level 3 – inputs that are unobservable (for example cash flow modeling inputs based on assumptions)


Level 3 liabilities are valued using unobservable inputs to the valuation methodology that are significant to the measurement of the fair value of the liabilities. For fair value measurements categorized within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy, the Company’s accounting and finance department, who report to the Chief Financial Officer, determine its valuation policies and procedures. The development and determination of the unobservable inputs for Level 3 fair value measurements and fair value calculations are the responsibility of the Company’s accounting and finance department and are approved by the Chief Financial Officer.


As of March 31, 2021 and 2020, there were no transfers in or out of Level 3 from other levels in the fair value hierarchy.


Property and Equipment


Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation of property and equipment is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets. Depreciation of leasehold improvements is computed using the straight-line method over the lesser of the estimated useful life of the improvement or the remaining term of the lease. Estimated useful asset life by classification is as follows:


Office equipment     3  
Manufacturing, lab and other equipment     5  
Furniture and fixtures     7  


Upon retirement or sale, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the consolidated balance sheet and the resulting gain or loss is reflected in operations. Maintenance and repairs are charged to operations as incurred.


Impairment of Long-Lived Assets


The Company periodically reviews the carrying values of its long-lived assets when events or changes in circumstances would indicate that it is more likely than not that their carrying values may exceed their realizable values, and records impairment charges when considered necessary. Specific potential indicators of impairment include, but are not necessarily limited to:


  · a significant decrease in the fair value of an asset;


  · a significant change in the extent or manner in which an asset is used or a significant physical change in an asset;


  · a significant adverse change in legal factors or in the business climate that affects the value of an asset;


  · an adverse action or assessment by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or another regulator; and


  · an accumulation of costs significantly in excess of the amount originally expected to acquire or construct an asset; and operating or cash flow losses combined with a history of operating or cash flow losses or a projection or forecast that demonstrates continuing losses associated with an income-producing asset.


When circumstances indicate that an impairment may have occurred, the Company tests such assets for recoverability by comparing the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of such assets and their eventual disposition to their carrying amounts. In estimating these future cash flows, assets and liabilities are grouped at the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows that are largely independent of the cash flows generated by other such groups. If the undiscounted future cash flows are less than the carrying amount of the asset, an impairment loss, measured as the excess of the carrying value of the asset over its estimated fair value, will be recognized. The cash flow estimates used in such calculations are based on estimates and assumptions, using all available information that management believes is reasonable.


During the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company had noted no indicators of impairment.


Research and Development


Research and development expenses are charged to operations as incurred and consists primarily of personnel expenses, clinical and regulatory services and supplies. For the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, research and development expense amounted to $555,000 and $1,339,000, respectively.


Advertising Costs


Advertising costs are charged to operations as incurred. Advertising costs amounted to $41,000 and $35,000, for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Advertising costs are included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of comprehensive (loss) income.


Shipping and Handling Costs


The Company classifies amounts billed to customers related to shipping and handling in sale transactions as product revenues. The corresponding shipping and handling costs incurred are recorded in cost of product revenues. For the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company recorded revenue related to shipping and handling costs of $37,000 and $57,000, respectively. These amounts are included in product revenues in the accompanying consolidated statements of comprehensive (loss) income.


Foreign Currency Reporting


The Company’s subsidiary, OTM, uses the local currency (Mexican Pesos) as its functional currency and its subsidiary, SP Europe, uses the local currency (Euro) as its functional currency. Assets and liabilities are translated at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, and revenue and expense accounts are translated at average exchange rates during the period. Resulting translation adjustments amounted to $1,031,000 and $(1,261,000) for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. These amounts were recorded in other comprehensive loss in the accompanying consolidated statements of comprehensive loss for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020.


Foreign currency transaction gains (losses) relate primarily to trade payables and receivables and intercompany transactions between subsidiaries OTM and SP Europe. These transactions are expected to be settled in the foreseeable future. The Company recorded foreign currency transaction losses of $690,000 for the year ended March 31, 2021, and foreign currency transaction gains of $306,000, for the year ended March 31, 2020. The related amounts were recorded in other expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of comprehensive (loss) income.


Stock-Based Compensation


The Company accounts for share-based awards exchanged for employee services at the estimated grant date fair value of the award. The Company estimates the fair value of employee stock option awards using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Company amortizes the fair value of employee stock options on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the awards.  Compensation expense includes the impact of an estimate for forfeitures for all stock options.


The Company accounts for equity instruments issued to non-employees at their fair value on the measurement date. The measurement of stock-based compensation is subject to periodic adjustment as the underlying equity instrument vests or becomes non-forfeitable. Non-employee stock-based compensation charges are amortized over the vesting period or as earned.


Income Taxes


Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and net operating loss and credit carryforwards using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to impact taxable income. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts expected to be realized.


Tax benefits claimed or expected to be claimed on a tax return are recorded in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. A tax benefit from an uncertain tax position is only recognized if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the consolidated financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate resolution. Uncertain tax positions have had no impact on the Company’s consolidated financial condition, results of comprehensive (loss) income or cash flows.


Comprehensive Loss


Other comprehensive loss includes all changes in stockholders’ equity during a period from non-owner sources and is reported in the consolidated statement of changes in stockholders’ equity. To date, other comprehensive loss consists of changes in accumulated foreign currency translation adjustments. Accumulated other comprehensive losses at March 31, 2021 and 2020 were $4,579,000, and $5,610,000, respectively.


Net Loss per Share


The Company computes basic net loss per share by dividing net loss per share available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period and excludes the effects of any potentially dilutive securities. Diluted earnings per share, if presented, would include the dilution that would occur upon the exercise or conversion of all potentially dilutive securities into common stock using the “treasury stock” and/or “if converted” methods as applicable.


    For the Year Ended March 31,  
(In thousands, except per share data)   2021     2020  
Loss from continuing operations   $ (4,615 )   $ (3,573 )
Income from discontinued operations     665       265  
Net loss   $ (3,950 )   $ (3,308 )
Weighted-average number of common shares outstanding: basic and diluted     1,996       1,477  
Loss per share from continuing operations   $ (2.31 )   $ (2.42 )
Income per share from discontinued operations     0.33       0.18  
Net loss per share: basic and diluted   $ (1.97 )   $ (2.24 )


The computation of basic loss per share for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 excludes the potentially dilutive securities summarized in the table below because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.


    March 31,  
(In thousands)   2021     2020  
Common stock to be issued upon vesting of restricted stock units     1       2  
Common stock to be issued upon exercise of options     268       378  
Common stock to be issued upon exercise of warrants     119       320  
Common stock to be issued upon conversion of Series C           17  
Common stock to be issued upon exercise of common stock units (1)     46       46  
      434       763  


  (1) Consists of 30,668 restricted stock units and warrants to purchase 15,332 shares of common stock


Common Stock Purchase Warrants and Other Derivative Financial Instruments


The Company classifies common stock purchase warrants and other free standing derivative financial instruments as equity if the contracts (i) require physical settlement or net-share settlement or (ii) give the Company a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in its own shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement). The Company classifies any contracts that (i) require net-cash settlement (including a requirement to net cash settle the contract if an event occurs and if that event is outside the control of the Company), (ii) give the counterparty a choice of net cash settlement or settlement in shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement), or (iii) contain reset provisions as either an asset or a liability. The Company assesses classification of its freestanding derivatives at each reporting date to determine whether a change in classification between assets and liabilities is required. The Company determined that its freestanding derivatives, which principally consist of warrants to purchase common stock, satisfied the criteria for classification as equity instruments, other than certain warrants that contained reset provisions and certain warrants that required net-cash settlement that the Company classified as derivative liabilities. The company currently does not have any active derivative financial instruments.


Preferred Stock


The Company applies the accounting standards for distinguishing liabilities from equity when determining the classification and measurement of its preferred stock. Shares that are subject to mandatory redemption (if any) are classified as liability instruments and are measured at fair value. The Company classifies conditionally redeemable preferred shares, which includes preferred shares that feature redemption rights that are either within the control of the holder or subject to redemption upon the occurrence of uncertain events not solely within the Company’s control, as temporary equity. At all other times, preferred shares are classified as stockholders' equity.


Subsequent Events


Management has evaluated subsequent events or transactions occurring through the date these consolidated financial statements were issued.


Adoption of Recent Accounting Standards


In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) which supersedes FASB ASC Topic 840, Leases (Topic 840) and provides principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases for both lessees and lessors. The FASB has continued to clarify this guidance and most recently issued ASU 2017-13 Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to the Staff Announcement at the July 20, 2017 EITF Meeting and Rescission of Prior SEC Staff Announcements and Observer Comments. The new standard requires lessees to apply a dual approach, classifying leases as either finance or operating leases based on the principle of whether or not the lease is effectively a financed purchase by the lessee. This classification will determine whether lease expense is recognized based on an effective interest method or on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease, respectively. A lessee is also required to record a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with a term of greater than twelve months regardless of classification. Leases with a term of twelve months or less will be accounted for similar to existing guidance for operating leases. The Company adopted ASU 2016-02 on April 1, 2019. As a result of adopting this guidance, the consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2019 was not restated and is not comparative. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s results of operations. (Note 12)


In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (“ASU 2018-02”). ASU 2018-02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted for any interim period for which financial statements have not been issued. The adoption of this guidance did not have an impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements due the presence of a full valuation allowance for deferred tax assets.


Recent Accounting Standards


The Company has evaluated all the recent accounting standards and determined that none of them are material to it.