NOTE 3 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2012
|Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]||
NOTE 3 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Aquamed Technologies, Inc., Oculus Technologies of Mexico S.A. de C.V. (“OTM”) and Oculus Innovative Sciences Netherlands, B.V. (“OIS Europe”). All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent liabilities at the dates of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Significant estimates and assumptions include reserves and write-downs related to receivables and inventories, the recoverability of long-lived assets, deferred taxes and related valuation allowances, valuation of equity and derivative instruments, and debt discounts.
The Company generates revenue from sales of its products to hospitals, medical centers, doctors, pharmacies, and distributors. The Company sells its products directly to third parties and to distributors through various cancelable distribution agreements. The Company has also entered into agreements to license its technology and its products.
The Company also provides regulatory compliance testing and quality assurance services to medical device and pharmaceutical companies.
The Company records revenue when (i) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (ii) delivery has occurred, (iii) the fee is fixed or determinable, and (iv) collectability of the sale is reasonably assured.
The Company requires all of its product sales to be supported by evidence of a sale transaction that clearly indicates the selling price to the customer, shipping terms and payment terms. Evidence of an arrangement generally consists of a contract or purchase order approved by the customer. The Company has ongoing relationships with certain customers from which it customarily accepts orders by telephone in lieu of purchase orders.
The Company recognizes revenue at the time in which it receives a confirmation that the goods were either tendered at their destination, when shipped “FOB destination,” or transferred to a shipping agent, when shipped “FOB shipping point.” Delivery to the customer is deemed to have occurred when the customer takes title to the product. Generally, title passes to the customer upon shipment, but could occur when the customer receives the product based on the terms of the agreement with the customer.
The selling prices of all goods that the Company sells are fixed, and agreed to with the customer, prior to shipment. Selling prices are generally based on established list prices. The Company does not customarily permit its customers to return any of its products for monetary refunds or credit against completed or future sales. The Company, from time to time, may replace expired goods on a discretionary basis. The Company records these types of adjustments, when made, as a reduction of revenue. Sales adjustments were insignificant during the years ended March 31, 2012 and 2011.
The Company evaluates the creditworthiness of new customers and monitors the creditworthiness of its existing customers to determine whether events or changes in their financial circumstances would raise doubt as to the collectability of a sale at the time in which a sale is made. Payment terms on sales made in the United States are generally 30 days and internationally, generally range from 30 days to 90 days.
In the event a sale is made to a customer under circumstances in which collectability is not reasonably assured, the Company either requires the customer to remit payment prior to shipment or defers recognition of the revenue until payment is received. The Company maintains a reserve for amounts which may not be collectible due to risk of credit losses.
Additionally, the Company’s treatment for recognizing revenue related to distributors’ that are unable to provide inventory or product sell-through reports on a timely basis, is to defer and recognize revenue when payment is received. The Company believes the receipt of payment is the best indication of product sell-through.
The Company has entered into distribution agreements in Europe. Recognition of revenue and related cost of revenue from product sales is deferred until the product is sold from the distributors to their customers.
When the Company receives letters of credit and the terms of the sale provide for no right of return except to replace defective product, revenue is recognized when the letter of credit becomes effective and the product is shipped.
License revenue is generated through agreements with strategic partners for the commercialization of Microcyn® products. The terms of the agreements sometimes include non-refundable upfront fees. The Company analyzes multiple element arrangements to determine whether the elements can be separated. Analysis is performed at the inception of the arrangement and as each product is delivered. If a product or service is not separable, the combined deliverables are accounted for as a single unit of accounting and recognized over the performance obligation period.
Assuming the elements meet the criteria for separation and all other revenue requirements for recognition, the revenue recognition methodology prescribed for each unit of accounting is summarized below:
When appropriate, the Company defers recognition of non-refundable upfront fees. If it has continuing performance obligations then such up-front fees are deferred and recognized over the period of continuing involvement.
The Company recognizes royalty revenues from licensed products upon the sale of the related products.
Revenue from consulting contracts is recognized as services are provided. Revenue from testing contracts is recognized as tests are completed and a final report is sent to the customer.
Sales Tax and Value Added Taxes
The Company accounts for sales taxes and value added taxes imposed on its goods and services on a net basis.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents may be invested in money market funds, commercial paper, variable rate demand instruments, and certificates of deposits.
Concentration of Credit Risk and Major Customers
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist principally of cash, cash equivalents and accounts receivable. Cash and cash equivalents are maintained in financial institutions in the United States, Mexico and the Netherlands. The Company is exposed to credit risk in the event of default by these financial institutions for amounts in excess of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insured limits. Cash and cash equivalents held in foreign banks are intentionally kept at minimal levels, and therefore have minimal credit risk associated with them.
The Company grants credit to its business customers, which are primarily located in Mexico, Europe and the United States. Collateral is generally not required for trade receivables. The Company maintains allowances for potential credit losses. At March 31, 2012, one customer represented 13% and two customers each represented 12% of the net accounts receivable balance. At March 31, 2011, one customer represented 11% of the net accounts receivable balance. During the year ended March 31, 2012, one customer represented 26% of net revenues. During the year ended March 31, 2011, one customer represented 17% of net revenues.
Trade accounts receivable are recorded net of allowances for cash discounts for prompt payment, doubtful accounts, and sales returns. Estimates for cash discounts and sales returns are based on analysis of contractual terms and historical trends.
The Company’s policy is to reserve for uncollectible accounts based on its best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses in its existing accounts receivable. The Company periodically reviews its accounts receivable to determine whether an allowance for doubtful accounts is necessary based on an analysis of past due accounts and other factors that may indicate that the realization of an account may be in doubt. Other factors that the Company considers include its existing contractual obligations, historical payment patterns of its customers and individual customer circumstances, an analysis of days sales outstanding by customer and geographic region, and a review of the local economic environment and its potential impact on government funding and reimbursement practices. Account balances deemed to be uncollectible are charged to the allowance after all means of collection have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote. The allowance for doubtful accounts at March 31, 2012 and 2011 represents probable credit losses in the amounts of $52,000 and $62,000, respectively.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost, cost being determined on a standard cost basis (which approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis), or market.
Due to changing market conditions, estimated future requirements, age of the inventories on hand and production of new products, the Company regularly reviews inventory quantities on hand and records a provision to write down excess and obsolete inventory to its estimated net realizable value. The Company recorded reserves to reduce the carrying amounts of inventories to their net realizable value in the amounts of $105,000 and $158,000 at March 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liabilities
Financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts payable and accrued liabilities are carried at cost, which management believes approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments. The fair value of capital lease obligations and equipment loans approximates their carrying amounts as a market rate of interest is attached to their repayment.
The Company measures the fair value of financial assets and liabilities based on the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The Company maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. The Company uses three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:
Level 1 — quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
Level 2 — quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets or inputs that are observable
Level 3 — inputs that are unobservable (for example cash flow modeling inputs based on assumptions)
Financial liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis are summarized below:
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation of property and equipment is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets. Depreciation of leasehold improvements is computed using the straight-line method over the lesser of the estimated useful life of the improvement or the remaining term of the lease. Estimated useful asset life by classification is as follows:
Upon retirement or sale, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the consolidated balance sheet and the resulting gain or loss is reflected in operations. Maintenance and repairs are charged to operations as incurred.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company periodically reviews the carrying values of its long-lived assets when events or changes in circumstances would indicate that it is more likely than not that their carrying values may exceed their realizable values, and records impairment charges when considered necessary. Specific potential indicators of impairment include, but are not necessarily limited to:
When circumstances indicate that an impairment may have occurred, the Company tests such assets for recoverability by comparing the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of such assets and their eventual disposition to their carrying amounts. In estimating these future cash flows, assets and liabilities are grouped at the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows that are largely independent of the cash flows generated by other such groups. If the undiscounted future cash flows are less than the carrying amount of the asset, an impairment loss, measured as the excess of the carrying value of the asset over its estimated fair value, will be recognized. The cash flow estimates used in such calculations are based on estimates and assumptions, using all available information that management believes is reasonable. During the years ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, the Company had noted no indicators of impairment.
Research and Development
Research and development expense is charged to operations as incurred and consists primarily of personnel expenses, clinical and regulatory services and supplies. For the years ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, research and development expense amounted to $1,981,000 and $2,046,000, respectively.
Advertising costs are expensed are incurred. Advertising costs amounted to $177,000 and $304,000, for the years ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. Advertising costs are included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Shipping and Handling Costs
The Company classifies amounts billed to customers related to shipping and handling in sale transactions as product revenues. Shipping and handling costs incurred are recorded in cost of product revenues. For the years ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, the Company recorded revenue related to shipping and handling costs of $70,000 and $63,000, respectively.
Foreign Currency Reporting
The Company’s subsidiary, OTM uses the local currency (Mexican Pesos) as its functional currency and OIS Europe uses the local currency (Euro) as its functional currency. Assets and liabilities are translated at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, and revenue and expense accounts are translated at average exchange rates during the period. Resulting translation adjustments were recorded in accumulated other comprehensive loss in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets at March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011.
Foreign currency transaction gains (losses) relate primarily to trade payables and receivables between subsidiaries OTM and OIS Europe. These transactions are expected to be settled in the foreseeable future. The Company recorded foreign currency transaction gains of $26,000 and foreign currency transaction losses of $2,000 for the years ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The related net gains were recorded in other expense, net, in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
The Company accounts for share-based awards exchanged for employee services at the estimated grant date fair value of the award. The Company estimates the fair value of employee stock awards using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Company amortizes the fair value of employee stock options on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the awards. Compensation expense includes the impact of an estimate for forfeitures for all stock options.
The Company accounts for equity instruments issued to non-employees at their fair value on the measurement date. The measurement of stock-based compensation is subject to periodic adjustment as the underlying equity instrument vests or becomes non-forfeitable. Non-employee stock-based compensation charges are amortized over the vesting period or as earned.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and net operating loss and credit carryforwards using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to impact taxable income. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts expected to be realized.
Tax benefits claimed or expected to be claimed on a tax return are recorded in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. A tax benefit from an uncertain tax position is only recognized if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate resolution. Uncertain tax positions have had no impact on the Company’s consolidated financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Other comprehensive loss includes all changes in stockholders’ equity during a period from non-owner sources and is reported in the consolidated statement of changes in stockholders’ (deficiency) equity. To date, other comprehensive loss consists of changes in accumulated foreign currency translation adjustments. Accumulated other comprehensive losses at March 31, 2012 and 2011 were $3,053,000 and $2,901,000, respectively.
Net Loss Per Share
The Company computes basic net loss per share by dividing net loss per share available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period and excludes the effects of any potentially dilutive securities. Diluted earnings per share, if presented, would include the dilution that would occur upon the exercise or conversion of all potentially dilutive securities into common stock using the “treasury stock” and/or “if converted” methods as applicable. The computation of basic loss per share for the years ended March 31, 2012 and 2011 excludes potentially dilutive securities because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.
Common Stock Purchase Warrants and Other Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company classifies common stock purchase warrants and other free standing derivative financial instruments as equity if the contracts (i) require physical settlement or net-share settlement or (ii) give the Company a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in its own shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement). The Company classifies any contracts that (i) require net-cash settlement (including a requirement to net cash settle the contract if an event occurs and if that event is outside the control of the Company), (ii) give the counterparty a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement), or (iii) contain reset provisions, as either an asset or a liability. The Company assesses classification of its freestanding derivatives at each reporting date to determine whether a change in classification between assets and liabilities is required. The Company determined that its freestanding derivatives, which principally consist of warrants to purchase common stock, satisfied the criteria for classification as equity instruments at March 31, 2012, other than certain warrants that contain reset provisions that the Company classified as derivative liabilities as more fully described in Note 10.
Management has evaluated subsequent events or transactions occurring through the date these consolidated financial statements were issued (Note 17).
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2011, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2011-04, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820) - Amendments to Achieve Common Fair Value Measurement and Disclosure Requirements in U.S. GAAP and IFRSs." This ASU addresses fair value measurement and disclosure requirements within Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 820 for the purpose of providing consistency and common meaning between U.S. GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRSs”). Generally, this ASU is not intended to change the application of the requirements in Topic 820. Rather, this ASU primarily changes the wording to describe many of the requirements in U.S. GAAP for measuring fair value or for disclosing information about fair value measurements. This ASU is effective for periods beginning after December 15, 2011. It is not expected to have any impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements or disclosures.
In June 2011, the FASB issued ASU No. 2011-05, “Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Presentation of Comprehensive Income.” This ASU increases the prominence of other comprehensive income (“OCI”) in the financial statements and provides companies two options for presenting OCI, which until now has typically been placed within the statement of equity. One option allows an OCI statement to be included with the net income statement, and together the two will make a statement of total comprehensive income. Alternately, companies may present an OCI statement separate from the net income statement; however, the two statements will have to appear consecutively within a financial report. This ASU does not affect the types of items that are reported in OCI, nor does it affect the calculation or presentation of earnings per share. For public companies, this ASU is effective for periods beginning after December 15, 2011. The Company is evaluating the impact this standard will have on the Company’s consolidated financial position and results of operations.
Accounting standards that have been issued or proposed by the FASB, SEC and/or other standards-setting bodies that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements upon adoption.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef